Kazakhstan. Lake Chagan, known also as Lake Balapan, is often referred to as the “Atomic Lake”. It was created by an underground explosion at the Semipalatinsk test site, on January 15, 1965 conducted as part of the Soviet Union’s Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy programme. A 140-kiloton device was detonated in a 178-metre-deep (584 ft) hole in the dry bed of the Chagan River. The blast created a crater 400 m (1,300 ft) across and 100 m (330 ft) deep with a lip height of 20 to 38 m (66 to 125 ft). The lake’s water comes from the Chagan River, a tributary of the Irtysh River.
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